1. What negative side effect will happen if antibiotics is over-used (misused).

Super bacteria which can no longer not be killed by any kind of known antibiotics will be cultvated.


2. There is only 1.5% of human gene are different from what apes have, how to explain the huge difference between the two species ?

There are 25000 genes in human, for 1.5 % is still several hundhrds of genes. that may accounds for the differences.


3. What is gene ?

One gene, one protein.


4. In which way scientists found DNA form its double helix structure ?

They use X-ray diffraction to observe the pattern scattered from the crystal of DNA.


5. Explain in detail how protein is made according to DNA ?

DNA codes consist of A, T, C, G, when certain gene is activated by molecular signal, an enzyme (RNA Polymerase) copy a section of code from openned double helix DNA strand, in cell nucleus. the copied DNA segment (mRNA) is sent to cytoplasm, where another enzyme ribosome capture the segment and join amino acid carrying tRNA matchig the triple code one by one. The linked up amino acid form long a chain, when this long chain form a folded 3D object, it become biofucntional active protein.

Outline sytle answer :

(a) an enzyme (protein RNA polymerase) in cell neucleus copy DNA code to form a section of mRNA

(b) mRNA is sent into cell matrix (cytoplasm)

(c) Ribosome capture mRNA, and based on its code sequence to link amino acids (as part of tRNA) one by one into a long chain

(d) the long chain folded into a 3D sturcture protein to be bio-functional


6. Given all cells in one body have same entire set of DNA blue-print, why organs and body parts are different and in their right places ?

There is one key protein unlooking a set of genes to build the entire organ, and there is mechanism make sections of body activating different key proteins when the organism is in its embryonic stage.


7. Why P53 gene related to the cause of many kinds of cancers ?

The proteins made by P53 gene an monitor cell duplication and slow it down, earn the time for DNA repair protens to repair damaged DNA.

As a last resolution, when the DNA is beyond repair, P53 trigger self-destcution procedure to ut all DNA into pieces.


8. Fat gene and sickle-cell anaemia (a red blood cell deficient disease) has its advantage and its disadvantage for human, how come ?

Gene that aggresively store energy from food as fat help people survive in the time when food is hard to get.

Sickle-shaped red blood cell make mararia (protozoa, singl cell parasite) hard to live in human body and promoste the survival chance after malaria affection.


9. Explain why skin peeling off after serious sun burn is a good thing.

Cell self-destruction is one way to protect cells' DNA from overly damaged by UV ray. Making un-repairable skin cell to die out prevent potential risk of developing skin cancer.


10. Human cloning is possible now, but most countries forbid it by law. Why ?

Clonned person has his/her own right, so prevent human cloning as reserved young organ for replacing the old, is it forbiden by law.